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Problems and Future Development of Laser Processing Technology

I. Overseas Laser Processing Technology and Development Trends

A few developed countries, represented by Germany, the United States, Japan and Russia, currently dominate and control the development direction of global laser technology and industry (see the attached table). Among them, German Trumpf and Rofin-Sinar companies dominate the world in high-power industrial lasers, while American IPG company's fiber lasers lead the development direction of the world laser industry. In large manufacturing industries such as machinery, automobile, aviation, shipbuilding, electronics and so on, major European and American countries have basically completed the renewal and replacement of traditional processes with laser processing technology and entered the era of 'optical processing'.

After decades of development, laser technology has opened up a wide range of applications, covering nine main categories of communication, material processing, excimer lithography and data storage. According to foreign statistics, the total laser sales in the world exceeded 100 billion yuan in 2013. Among them, the global laser market sales increased by 6.0% compared with 2013, reaching 9.334 billion US dollars. The U.S. market has grown with excellent export performance; Europe has only maintained its balance of payments with German export growth; and in Asia, ASEAN growth has offset China's slowdown and Japan's zero growth.

II. Current Situation of Domestic Laser Industry

1. Overall pattern of domestic laser industry

Domestic laser enterprises mainly distribute in Hubei, Beijing, Jiangsu, Shanghai and Shenzhen, and have basically formed four major laser industry bases in Central China, Bohai Rim, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta with the above provinces and cities as the main body. Among them, there are about 300 enterprises of a certain scale.

In 2014, the output value of China's laser industry chain is about 80 billion yuan. Mainly include: laser processing equipment industry reached 35 billion yuan (of which, high-power laser equipment for cutting, marking and welding occupied 67% of the market share); laser processing in heavy industry, electronic industry, light industry, military, medical and other industries reached 45 billion yuan. It is expected that the average composite growth rate of laser industry in China will not be less than 20% in the next three years.

China's laser processing industry can be divided into four relatively large industrial belts: the Pearl River Delta, the Yangtze River Delta, Central China and the Bohai Rim. The four industrial belts have different emphases. The Pearl River Delta is dominated by medium and small power laser processing machines, the Yangtze River Delta is dominated by high power laser cutting and welding equipment, the Bohai Rim is dominated by high power laser cladding and all solid-state laser, and the Central China region, led by Wuhan, covers large, medium and small laser processing equipment. Among the four industrial belts, the central China region, especially Wuhan, is the most representative. The title of 'Guanggu' in China is a strong proof. Wuhan region can be said to have witnessed the whole process of China's laser processing industry from scratch, from weak to strong, and is the epitome of China's laser industry development.

2. Key units of laser industry in China

After more than 40 years of development in China, laser technology has a relatively strong technical foundation, training and training a team of high quality. Represented by four optical and mechanical Institutes of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, research institutes affiliated to ministries and commissions and a number of universities, it has formed an important force in the research and development of laser system technology in China, such as 16 research institutes such as Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Tsinghua University and Beijing University of Technology. Five state-level laser technology research centers and more than 10 research institutes have been formed on the core technology of some laser research and development.

China's laser industry backbone enterprises are: Wuhan-Huagong Laser, Chutian Laser, Unity Laser, Jinyun Laser, Reike Laser; Shenzhen-Dazu Laser, Guangyunda Laser, Guangda Laser, Win-Win Laser; Beijing-Daheng Laser, 11; East China-Shanghai Unity Prima, Nanjing Oriental, etc. The eight laser listed companies in China's laser industry are Huagong Technology, Dazu Laser, Jinyun Laser, Guangyunda, Fujing Technology, Xinsong Robot, Lida Optoelectronics and Shanghai New Nanyang.

Advantages of Laser Processing

Laser processing belongs to non-contact processing, and the energy and moving speed of high-energy laser beam can be adjusted, so it can achieve a variety of processing purposes. It can process a variety of metals and non-metals, especially materials with high hardness, brittleness and melting point. Laser processing flexibility is mainly used for cutting, surface treatment, welding, marking and drilling. Laser surface treatment includes laser transformation hardening, laser cladding, laser surface alloying and laser surface melting.

Laser processing technology has the following unique advantages: 1. Using laser processing, high production efficiency, reliable quality and economic benefits. (2) The workpiece in the sealed container can be processed by transparent medium, and laser processing can be carried out by robots in harsh environments or places where it is difficult for others to approach. There is no tool wear and no cutting force acting on the workpiece in laser processing. It can process many kinds of metals and non-metals, especially materials with high hardness, brittleness and melting point. Laser beam is easy to be oriented and focused to realize all-direction transformation. It is easy to cooperate with CNC system and process complex workpiece. Therefore, it is a very flexible processing method. _Non-contact processing, no direct impact on the workpiece, so there is no mechanical deformation, and the energy of high-energy laser beam and its moving speed are adjustable, so it can achieve a variety of processing purposes. _In the process of laser processing, the laser beam has high energy density, fast processing speed and is locally processed, which has little or no influence on the non-laser irradiated parts.